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III.A.2.N.g. Temporarily flooded temperate broad-leaved evergreen shrubland

III.A.2.N.g. Temporarily flooded temperate broad-leaved evergreen shrubland

A.795 Arundinaria gigantea Temporarily Flooded Shrubland Alliance


Giant Cane Temporarily Flooded Shrubland Alliance

Alliance Concept



Summary:

This alliance encompasses various temporarily flooded wetlands, including alluvial or loess substrates (streamside flats, bottomlands), dominated by Arundinaria, without an overstory, or with widely scattered trees. Evidence suggests that this alliance was widespread historically, covering large areas of many floodplains and streamsides in the Coastal Plain from North Carolina to Texas, the Mississippi River Alluvial Plain north to Illinois and Missouri, Interior Highlands, Interior Low Plateau, Southern Blue Ridge and possibly the Central Appalachians of the southeastern United States. It now occupies very little of its former acreage. Canebrakes are successional communities and may have originated following abandonment of aboriginal agricultural fields or catastrophic disturbances such as windstorms. They are thought to have been maintained in part by fires set by Native Americans. This alliance may be found along larger rivers (Buffalo, White, Norfork) in the Ozarks, as well as in the Wabash and Ohio drainage systems, at least historically. It was also reported historically along the Red and Mississippi rivers in Louisiana, Coastal Prairie rivers in Texas, and the Black, Washita, Arkansas, Pearl, Tombigbee, Yazoo, Savannah, and St. Mary's rivers. Large, extant canebrakes still exist and have been documented from the Ocmulgee Basin, south of Macon, Georgia. In the Central Appalachians various wetlands, including those on alluvial or loess substrates (streamside flats, bottomlands), were dominated by Arundinaria, without an overstory, or with widely scattered trees.

Environment:

This alliance is found in wetlands on alluvial or loess substrates. Dense monospecific stands of Arundinaria gigantea ssp. gigantea were historically found in bottomlands and streamsides in the southeastern United States. In presettlement times, a single river valley grove could be 2 or 3 miles wide and 100 miles long.

Vegetation:

Vegetation of this alliance is dominated by Arundinaria gigantea ssp. gigantea. Widely scattered trees may be present and the cane thicket may also include various briars (Smilax spp.) and other vines.

Dynamics:

Vegetation classed within this alliance is successional and is thought to be maintained by periodic fires and may have originated following abandonment of aboriginal agricultural fields or catastrophic disturbances such as windstorms.

Similar Alliances:

Arundinaria gigantea Saturated Shrubland Alliance (A.801) Arundinaria gigantea Saturated Wooded Shrubland Alliance (A.804) Arundinaria gigantea Wooded Shrubland Alliance (A.794)

Similar Alliance Comments:



Alliance Distribution



Range:

This alliance was widespread historically but now occupies very little acreage. It may be found along rivers and streamsides in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and possibly Florida and Virginia.

Nations:

US

Subnations:

AL, AR, FL?, GA, IL, KY, LA, MO, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA?

TNC Ecoregions:

31:P, 32:P, 38:C, 39:C, 40:C, 41:P, 42:C, 43:P, 44:C, 50:C, 51:C, 52:P, 53:P, 56:C, 57:P, 59:C

USFS Ecoregions:

221Ha:CC?, 221Hc:CCP, 221Hd:CCP, 221He:CC?, 221Ja:CCC, 221Jb:CCP, 221Jc:CCP, 222Ab:CCC, 222Ag:CCC, 222Ah:CCC, 222An:CCC, 222Ca:CCP, 222Cb:CCP, 222Cc:CCP, 222Cd:CCP, 222Ce:CCP, 222Cf:CCP, 222Cg:CCP, 222Ch:CCP, 222Da:CCP, 222Db:CCP, 222Dc:CCP, 222Dd:CCP, 222De:CCP, 222Dg:CCP, 222Di:CCP, 222Dj:CCP, 222Ea:CCC, 222Eb:CCC, 222Ec:CCC, 222Ed:CCC, 222Ef:CCP, 222Eg:CCP, 222Eh:CCC, 222Ei:CCP, 222Ej:CC?, 222Ek:CCP, 222El:CCP, 222Em:CCP, 222En:CC?, 222Eo:CC?, 222Fa:CCC, 222Fb:CCC, 222Fc:CCC, 222Fd:CCC, 222Ff:CC?, 231Aa:CCP, 231Ab:CC?, 231Ac:CCP, 231Ad:CCP, 231Ae:CCP, 231Af:CCP, 231Ag:CC?, 231Ah:CC?, 231Ai:CCP, 231Am:CC?, 231An:CC?, 231Ao:CCP, 231Ba:CCP, 231Bb:CCP, 231Bc:CCP, 231Bd:CCP, 231Be:CCP, 231Bf:CCP, 231Bg:CCP, 231Bh:CCP, 231Bi:CCP, 231Bj:CCP, 231Bk:CCP, 231Bl:CCP, 231Ca:CCP, 231Cb:CCP, 231Cc:CCP, 231Cd:CCP, 231Ce:CCP, 231Cf:CCP, 231Cg:CCP, 231Da:CCP, 231Db:CCP, 231Dc:CCP, 231Dd:CCP, 231De:CCP, 231Ea:CCP, 231Eb:CCP, 231Ec:CCC, 231Ed:CCC, 231Ee:CCP, 231Ej:CCP, 231Ek:CCP, 231Em:CCC, 231Ga:CCC, 231Gb:CCC, 231Gc:CCC, 234Aa:CCC, 234Ab:CC?, 234Ac:CCP, 234Ad:CCP, 234Ae:CCC, 234Af:CCP, 234Ag:CCC, 234Ah:CC?, 234Ai:CCC, 234Aj:CC?, 234Ak:CC?, 234Al:CCP, 234Am:CCC, 234An:CCC, 255Da:PPP, 255Db:PPP, M221Dc:CCC, M221Dd:CCC, M222Aa:CCC, M222Ab:CCC, M231Aa:CCC, M231Ab:CCC, M231Ac:CCC, M231Ad:CCC

Federal Lands:

DOD (Fort Benning); NPS (Blue Ridge Parkway?, Buffalo, Cowpens, Great Smoky Mountains, Ninety Six, Ozark); USFS (Cherokee?, Mark Twain, Ouachita?, Ozark, St. Francis); USFWS (Little River, San Bernard?)

Alliance Sources



Author(s):

A.S. Weakley, Mod. J. Teague

References:

Campbell 1980, Campbell 1989b, Davidson 1950, Flores 1984, Foti et al. 1994, Heineke 1987, Hoagland 1998a, Hughes 1966, McInteer 1952, Meanley 1972, Mohr 1901, Platt and Brantley 1992, Platt and Brantley 1997, West 1934

[CEGL003836] Arundinaria gigantea ssp. gigantea Shrubland


Translated Name:

Giant Cane Shrubland

Common Name:

Floodplain Canebrake



Ecological System(s):

Central Appalachian Floodplain (CES202.608)

Atlantic Coastal Plain Nonriverine Swamp and Wet Hardwood Forest (CES203.304)

Mississippi River Riparian Forest (CES203.190)

South-Central Interior Large Floodplain (CES202.705)

South-Central Interior Small Stream and Riparian (CES202.706)

Atlantic Coastal Plain Large River Floodplain Forest (CES203.066)



Mississippi River High Floodplain (Bottomland) Forest (CES203.196)

Status:

Standard

Circumscription Confidence:

2 - Moderate

Concept Author(s):

K.D. Patterson, mod. D. Faber-Langendoen, mod. J. Teague

Element Concept



Global Summary:

This association is characterized by dense, often monospecific thickets of the bamboo shrub Arundinaria gigantea occupying large areas referred to as canebrakes. The canebrake shrubland type was historically widespread, but is now rare and occupies very little of its former acreage. It was best developed in streamside flats and alluvial floodplains on ridges and terraces where it was protected from prolonged inundation. Historically, this community covered large areas of many floodplains and streamsides in the Coastal Plain from North Carolina to Texas, Mississippi River Alluvial Plain, Interior Highlands, Interior Low Plateau, Southern Blue Ridge and possibly the Central Appalachians of the southeastern United States. Stands occur on alluvial and loess soils and are often associated with bottomland hardwood forest vegetation. This association is successional and is thought to be maintained by periodic fires. It may have originated following abandonment of aboriginal agricultural fields or other natural and anthropogenic disturbances such as blow-downs and catastrophic floods. Historical accounts report cane as abundant along the Wabash and Ohio drainage systems, as well as common along larger rivers (Buffalo, White, Norfork) in the Ozarks and Ouachitas. It was also reported as common along the Red and Mississippi rivers in Louisiana, Coastal Prairie rivers in Texas, and the Black, Washita, Arkansas, Sabine, Pearl, Tombigbee, Yazoo, Savannah, and St. Mary's rivers. Large, extant canebrakes still exist and have been documented from the Ocmulgee Basin, south of Macon, Georgia. In the Central Appalachians various wetlands, including those on alluvial or loess substrates (streamside flats, bottomlands), were dominated by Arundinaria, without an overstory, or with widely scattered trees.

Environmental Description



USFWS Wetland System:

Palustrine

Cowpens National Battlefield Environment:

Dense stands of Arundinaria gigantea ssp. gigantea were documented during the Revolutionary War as existing along many of the creeks within the present-day park. They were most likely maintained by fire. They no longer exist within the park boundary. In order to reintroduce this community to the park, it would be important to research the exact past locations of these communities and consider whether the current composition of those areas are justifiably transformed. A combination of frequent fire, seeding, and planting would be required to reintroduce cane at this time. Cane is found in the park and may serve as a source for transplanting and/or collecting seed in the years that it produces.

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Environment:

This vegetation occurs in association with an oxbow pond.

Ninety Six National Historic Site Environment:

Within Ninety Six, this community is historic and no longer occurs as an intact stand-alone community type due to suppression of fire and subsequent invasion by trees. The community occurred along Ninety Six Creek in broad swaths, most likely in areas where Platanus occidentalis - Celtis laevigata - Fraxinus pennsylvanica / Lindera benzoin - Ilex decidua / Carex retroflexa Forest (CEGL007730) currently exists. Stands of cane still exist, but are currently in areas of heavy forest and along openings created by the main channel of Ninety Six Creek. Restoration would require the careful selection of a site that still contained cane but was not of value as a forest, and the careful introduction of fire to reduce competition from other species and invasive exotics such as Ligustrum sinense.

Global Environment:

Stands of this association occur on alluvial and loess soils often affiliated with bottomland hardwood forest vegetation. Historically, it was best developed in streamside flats and alluvial floodplains on ridges and terraces where it was protected from prolonged inundation.

Vegetation Description



Cowpens National Battlefield Vegetation:

Although this community is locally extinct in this area, it is known to have been composed mainly of tall Arundinaria gigantea ssp. gigantea and other bottomland shrub and herbaceous species as thick "canebrakes."

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Vegetation:

The single example of this community observed on the Cades Cove quadrangle covers approximately 750 square meters. It is a dense, monospecific stand of Arundinaria gigantea.

Ninety Six National Historic Site Vegetation:

See global description.

Global Vegetation:

The vegetation is dominated by Arundinaria gigantea. Little else is known about its vegetational characteristics. However, information on its historic patterns of distribution provides some clues as to its ecology. General Land Office surveys and other historical accounts indicate that canebrakes were present in southern Illinois, southern Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Arkansas, eastern Texas, Louisiana, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina. Historical accounts refer to both "pure" stands of cane without an overstory of trees (cane shrublands) and areas with variable overstory closure (woodlands or forests) but with a dense understory dominated by cane as "canebrakes." As currently described, this association refers only to the former, cane shrublands. Cane was abundant along the Wabash and Ohio drainage systems (B. McClain pers. comm. 2000). In Missouri, these canebrakes were also thought to be common in the Ozark Highlands, particularly in southward-draining rivers and streams with finer-textured, more developed soils on upper floodplain terraces (T. Nigh pers. comm. 2000). Stands may be found along larger rivers (Buffalo, White, Norfork) in the Arkansas Ozarks in addition to the Ouachitas. In the Central Appalachians various wetlands, including those on alluvial or loess substrates (streamside flats, bottomlands), were dominated by Arundinaria, without an overstory, or with widely scattered trees (Central Appalachian Forest Ecoregional Team pers. comm. 1998). Historic accounts describe large expanses (one area was described as 75 miles long by 1-3 miles wide) of an "ocean of cane" in bottomlands of the Coastal Prairie of Texas (Smeins et al. 1992). No extant occurrences of this vegetation are known from this area today.

Global Dynamics:

A canebrake is an early successional community. It is suggested that Native Americans maintained canebrakes with the use of periodic fire, to provide a ready source of cane for a myriad of uses. Canebrakes may have expanded greatly in cover following the abandonment of aboriginal agricultural lands after the collapse of Native American populations due to exotic diseases (Platt and Brantley 1997).

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Floristic Composition



Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Arundinaria gigantea Tall shrub/sapling Graminoid X X .

Global Floristic Composition



Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Arundinaria gigantea Tall shrub/sapling Graminoid X X .

Higher Taxon Note

Species Name GRank Animal Note (specify Rare (geog area), Invasive, Animal, or Other)

Global Other Noteworthy Species



Species Name GRank Animal Note (specify Rare (geog area), Invasive, Animal, or Other)

Limnothlypis swainsonii - A

Vermivora bachmanii GH A

Conservation Status Rank



Global Rank & Reasons:

G2? (15-Feb-1999). Stands of this vegetation type were historically widespread, but now are rare or occupy very little acreage. It is thought to be maintained by frequent fire and may have historically resulted from aboriginal agriculture and burning. Dense, monospecific stands of Arundinaria gigantea ssp. gigantea were historically found in bottomland sites throughout the southeastern United States. Today, this vegetation exists as small remnants, and high-quality examples are extremely rare.

Related Concepts



Global Similar Associations:



Global Related Concepts:



  • P5A4bIII4a. Arundinaria gigantea (Foti et al. 1994) ?

  • Piedmont/Mountain Canebrake (Schafale 1998b) ?

Classification & Other Comments



Great Smoky Mountains National Park Other Comments:

On the Cades Cove quadrangle this vegetation occurs adjacent to a shrub swamp and abandoned agricultural fields.

Global Classification Comments:

This is a general placeholder, covering a broad geographic range, and several associations may ultimately be recognized. Dense, monospecific stands of Arundinaria gigantea ssp. gigantea were historically found in bottomland sites in the southeastern United States. Today, high-quality examples are extremely rare, if not absent. Historical accounts refer to both "pure" stands of cane without an overstory of trees (cane shrublands) and areas with variable overstory closure (woodlands or forests) but with a dense understory dominated by cane as "canebrakes." As currently described, this association refers only to the former, cane shrublands.

Element Distribution



Cowpens National Battlefield Range:

This type does not exist at the park at the present time, although it was most likely historically present in the swale areas and along some creeks.

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Range:

This community was sampled from one location on the Cade Cove quadrangle. It is unlikely on the Mount Le Conte quadrangle. It could occur in other areas of the park, particularly along larger rivers. This community was sampled from the western end of the Cades Cove Loop Road, along Abrams Creek.

Ninety Six National Historic Site Range:

Although this community was much more common 200 or more years ago, it may still occur occasionally in areas within the floodplain where tip-ups have occurred and created a high light environment for the cane.

Global Range:

This association was widespread historically but now occupies very little acreage. It may be found along rivers and streamsides in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and possibly Virginia (?).

Nations:

US

States/Provinces:

AL, AR, FL?, GA, IL, KY, LA, MO, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA?

TNC Ecoregions:

31:P, 32:P, 38:C, 39:C, 40:C, 41:P, 42:C, 43:P, 44:C, 50:C, 51:C, 52:P, 53:P, 56:C, 57:P, 59:C

TNC Ecoregion Comments:

ECO32, ECO39, ECO56, ECO57 added, ECO41 changed from X to P, and ECO50 changed from ? to C JT 1-02. JT 5-01: ECO31 added with P; this community is reported in historic accounts of the bottomland hardwoods in the Gulf Coast Prairies and Marshes in Texas; it is unknown whether any currently remains. ECO41 changed from C to X REE 7-00. ECO39 deleted KP 3-00.

USFS Ecoregions:

221Ha:CC?, 221Hc:CCP, 221Hd:CCP, 221He:CC?, 221Ja:CCC, 221Jb:CCP, 221Jc:CCP, 222Ab:CCC, 222Ag:CCC, 222Ah:CCC, 222An:CCC, 222Ca:CCP, 222Cb:CCP, 222Cc:CCP, 222Cd:CCP, 222Ce:CCP, 222Cf:CCP, 222Cg:CCP, 222Ch:CCP, 222Da:CCP, 222Db:CCP, 222Dc:CCP, 222Dd:CCP, 222De:CCP, 222Dg:CCP, 222Di:CCP, 222Dj:CCP, 222Ea:CCC, 222Eb:CCC, 222Ec:CCC, 222Ed:CCC, 222Ef:CCP, 222Eg:CCP, 222Eh:CCC, 222Ei:CCP, 222Ej:CC?, 222Ek:CCP, 222El:CCP, 222Em:CCP, 222En:CC?, 222Eo:CC?, 222Fa:CCC, 222Fb:CCC, 222Fc:CCC, 222Fd:CCC, 222Ff:CC?, 231Aa:CCP, 231Ab:CC?, 231Ac:CCP, 231Ad:CCP, 231Ae:CCP, 231Af:CCP, 231Ag:CC?, 231Ah:CC?, 231Ai:CCP, 231Am:CC?, 231An:CC?, 231Ao:CCP, 231Ba:CCP, 231Bb:CCP, 231Bc:CCP, 231Bd:CCP, 231Be:CCP, 231Bf:CCP, 231Bg:CCP, 231Bh:CCP, 231Bi:CCP, 231Bj:CCP, 231Bk:CCP, 231Bl:CCP, 231Ca:CCP, 231Cb:CCP, 231Cc:CCP, 231Cd:CCP, 231Ce:CCP, 231Cf:CCP, 231Cg:CCP, 231Da:CCP, 231Db:CCP, 231Dc:CCP, 231Dd:CCP, 231De:CCP, 231Ea:CCP, 231Eb:CCP, 231Ec:CCC, 231Ed:CCC, 231Ee:CCP, 231Ej:CCP, 231Ek:CCP, 231Em:CCC, 231Ga:CCC, 231Gb:CCC, 231Gc:CCC, 234Aa:CCC, 234Ab:CC?, 234Ac:CCP, 234Ad:CCP, 234Ae:CCC, 234Af:CCP, 234Ag:CCC, 234Ah:CC?, 234Ai:CCC, 234Aj:CC?, 234Ak:CC?, 234Al:CCP, 234Am:CCC, 234An:CCC, 255Da:PPP, 255Db:PPP, M221Dc:CCC, M221Dd:CCC, M222Aa:CCC, M222Ab:CCC, M231Aa:CCC, M231Ab:CCC, M231Ac:CCC, M231Ad:CCC

Federal Lands:

NPS (Blue Ridge Parkway?, Buffalo, Chickamauga-Chattanooga?, Cowpens, Great Smoky Mountains, Ninety Six, Ozark); USFS (Cherokee?, Mark Twain, Ouachita?, Ozark, St. Francis); USFWS (Little River, San Bernard?)

Element Sources


Blue Ridge Parkway Description Author(s):

R. White

Cowpens National Battlefield Description Author(s):

R. White

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Description Author(s):

K.D. Patterson

Ninety Six National Historic Site Description Author(s):

R. White

Global Description Author(s):

K.D. Patterson, mod. D. Faber-Langendoen, mod. J. Teague

References

(enter Reference Code when known, otherwise, enter Short Citation; enter full citation if reference is new)

Reference (*=concept ref) name classif related char rank eospec eorank manage image

Barden 1997 . . . X . . . . .

Blair 1938 . . . X . . . . .

CAP pers. comm. 1998 . . . X . . . . .

Campbell 1980 . X . X X . . . .

Campbell 1989b . X . X X . . . .

Davidson 1950 . X . X X . . . .

Flores 1984 . . . X . . . . .

Foti et al. 1994 . X X X X . . . .

Heineke 1987 . X . X X . . . .

Hoagland 1997 . . . . X . . . .

Hoagland 1998c . . . X . . . . .

Hoagland 2000 . X . X . . . . .

Hughes 1966 . X . X X . . . .

McClain pers. comm. . . . X . . . . .

McInteer 1952 . X . X X . . . .

Meanley 1972 . X . X X . . . .

Mohr 1901 . X . X X . . . .

Nigh pers. comm. . . . X . . . . .

Nuttall 1821 . . . X . . . . .

Peet et al. unpubl. data 2002 . . . X . . . . .

Platt and Brantley 1992 . X . X X . . . .

Platt and Brantley 1997 . X . X X . . . .

Schafale 1998b . . X X . . . . .

Schafale 2002 . . . . . . . . .

Schotz pers. comm. . . . . . . . . .

Smeins et al. 1992 . . . X . . . . .

Southeastern Ecology Working Group n.d.* X° . . . . . . . .

TDNH unpubl. data . . . . . . . . .

West 1934 . . . X . . . . .


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